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| Annona muricata|
The Soursop (Annona muricata) is tripti broadleaf, flowering, evergreen tree native to Central America, the Caribbean and northern South America, Colombia and Brazil, Mexico, Peru, Venezuela, Soursop is also native to sub-Saharan African countries that lie within the tropics. Today, it is also grown in some areas of Southeast Asia. It was most likely brought from Mexico to the Philippines by way of the Manila-Acapulco galleon trade. It is in the same genus as the chirimoya and the same family as the pawpaw.
The soursop is adapted to areas of high humidity and relatively warm winters; temperatures below 5 °C/41 °F will cause damage to leaves and small branches, and temperatures below 3 °C/37.4 °F can be fatal. The fruit becomes dry and is no longer good for concentrate.
Other common names include: guanábana (Spanish), graviola (Portuguese), Brazilian pawpaw, guyabano, corossolier, guanavana, toge-banreisi, durian benggala, nangka blanda, and nangka londa.  In Malayalam, it is called mullaatha , literally thorny custard apple. The other lesser known Indian names are shul-ram-fal and hanuman fal. Lord Ram and his disciple Hanuman are believed to have consumed this fruit on their way to Sri Lanka.
Cultivation and uses
Away from its native area, there is some limited production as far north as southern Florida within USDA Zone 10; however, these are mostly garden plantings for local consumption. It is also grown in parts of Southeast Asia. The soursop will reportedly fruit as a container specimen, even in temperate climates, if protected from cool temperatures.
The flesh of the fruit consists of an edible, white pulp and a core of indigestible, black seeds. The species is the only member of its genus that is suitable for processing and preservation. The sweet pulp is used to make juice, as well as candies, sorbets, and ice cream flavorings.
In Mexico and Colombia, it is a common fruit, often used for dessert as the only ingredient, or as an agua fresca beverage; in Colombia, it is a fruit for juices, mixed with milk. Ice cream and fruit bars made of soursop are also very popular. The seeds are normally left in the preparation, and removed while consuming.
In Indonesia, dodol sirsak, a sweetmeat, is made by boiling soursop pulp in water and adding sugar until the mixture hardens. Soursop is also a common ingredient for making fresh fruit juices that are sold by street food vendors. In the Philippines, it is called guyabano, obviously derived from the Spanish guanabana, and is eaten ripe, or used to make juices, smoothies, or ice cream. Sometimes, they use the leaf in tenderizing meat. In Vietnam, this fruit is called mãng cầu Xiêm in the south, or mãng cầu in the north, and is used to make smoothies, or eaten as is. In Cambodia, this fruit is called tearb barung, literally "western custard-apple fruit." In Malaysia, it is known in Malay as durian belanda and in East Malaysia, specifically among the Dusun people of Sabah, it is locally known as lampun. Popularly, it is eaten raw when it ripens. Usually the fruits are taken from the tree when they mature and left to ripen in a dark corner, whereby they will be eaten when they are fully ripe. It has a white flower with a very pleasing scent, especially in the morning.
Nutritionally, the fruit is high in carbohydrates, particularly fructose. The fruit also contains significant amounts of vitamin C, vitamin B1, and vitamin B2. The fruit, seeds, and leaves have a number of herbal medicinal uses among indigenous peoples of regions where the plant is common.
According to Cancer Research UK, Annona muricata is an active principle in an unlicensed herbal remedy marketed under the brand name Triamazon. Triamazon is not licensed for medicinal use and the sale of the product resulted in a conviction on four counts of selling unlicensed medical products, and other charges, for a vendor in the United Kingdom.
- ^ "Annona muricata information from NPGS/GRIN." www.ars-grin.gov. URL accessed on 2008-03-03.
- ^ http://www.blackherbals.com/graviola.htm
- ^ Lannuzel, A; et al. (2003-10-06). "The mitochondrial complex i inhibitor annonacin is toxic to mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons by impairment of energy metabolism". Neuroscience (International Brain Research Organization) 121 (2): 287–296. doi:10.1016/S0306-4522(03)00441-X. PMID 14521988.
- ^ Champy, Pierre; et al. (2005-08-02). "Quantification of acetogenins in Annona muricata linked to atypical parkinsonism in guadeloupe". Movement Disorders 20 (12): 1629–1633. doi:10.1002/mds.20632. PMID 16078200.
- ^ Lannuzel A, Höglinger GU, Champy P, Michel PP, Hirsch EC, Ruberg M. (2006). "Is atypical parkinsonism in the Caribbean caused by the consumption of Annonacae?". J Neural Transm Suppl.. Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementa 70 (70): 153–7. doi:10.1007/978-3-211-45295-0_24. ISBN 978-3-211-28927-3. PMID 17017523.
- ^ Caparros-Lefebvre D, Elbaz A. (1999-07-24). "Possible relation of atypical parkinsonism in the French West Indies with consumption of tropical plants: a case-control study". Lancet 354 (9175): 281–6. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)10166-6. PMID 10440304.
- ^ BriefingWire, Can Graviola cure cancer?, Cancer Research UK
- ^ Messenger Newspapers, 29th September 2010
- (Portuguese) Correia, M. P., (1984) Dicionário das plantas úteis do Brasil
- Description of soursop from Fruits of Warm Climates (1987, ISBN 0-9610184-1-0)
- Sorting Annona names
- Soursop / Guyabano Fruit Nutrition
- Rain-tree: Annona muricata
- Soursop List of Chemicals (Dr. Duke's)
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- Guanabana01 fs Asit.jpg
Fruit and Spice Park, Homestead, Florida
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Unbelievable Acres Botanic Gardens, West Palm Beach, Florida
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